Hybrid car – the car is used to drive the drive wheels more than one energy source.
Modern car manufacturers often resort to sharing the internal combustion engine and an electric motor , which avoids the engine operation in light load mode , and also to realize the recovery of kinetic energy , increasing the fuel efficiency of the power plant. Another common type of hybrids – vehicles, in which the internal combustion engine combined with engines running on compressed air.
Should be distinguished from hybrids vehicles with electromechanical transmission , such as locomotives, tractors and some tanks.
The general principle
Initially, the idea of the “electric gearbox “, ie replacing manual gearbox electric wires , was embodied in the railway transport and heavy- Haul trucks . Using this scheme due to substantial mechanical difficulties significantly transmission , and wherein the variable torque at the vehicle wheels . Internal combustion engines have a certain load characteristic ( dependent on the power output shaft speed ), which has optimum performance only within a narrow range , which is typically biased toward the high speed . Partially compensate for this deficiency by applying mechanical gearbox , which, however, degrade the overall efficiency of the system by its own losses . Additional complexity is the inability to change the direction of rotation of the shaft engine for reversing machine. Load characteristic of the motor is practically the same uniform throughout the range of operating frequencies ; it can be immediately started, stopped and reversed , and does not require idling , eliminating the transmission of the clutch mechanism – and in some cases, completely get rid of it by putting electric motors directly in the wheels ( wheel motor ) .
When applying electric transmission engine that runs on regular fuel , generator rotates ; produced by the current through the control system to the electric motors , which drive the vehicle. In this case, the appropriate comparison with the placed in an electric power plant generating electricity for its movement. Scheme of the hybrid vehicle is generally similar , but significantly modified , primarily by addition of the intermediate energy storage – typically battery having less than “clean” electric capacity and, consequently , weight .
A hybrid car combines the benefits of an electric vehicle and the internal combustion engine : higher efficiency of electric vehicles [citation 71 days ] (80-90 % compared to 35-50 % for vehicles with internal combustion engine ) and a large range of the one filling vehicles with internal combustion engines.
By the method of connection of motors and drive to the drive :
Serial : essentially a modification of electromechanical transmission with the addition of intermediate storage . The internal combustion engine is mechanically connected only to the electric generator , and traction motor – with the wheels only .
Parallel : the internal combustion engine and an electric motor mechanically coupled to the wheels via a differential which enables their operation separately or together . This scheme is used in vehicles with Integrated Motor Assist (Honda). Characterized by simplicity (possibly use with a manual transmission ) and low cost.
Serialparallel : an internal combustion engine and a motor generator mechanically connected with each other and with the wheels through the planetary gear unit that allows arbitrary changing power flow between these nodes . Scheme implemented in vehicles with Hybrid Synergy Drive (Toyota), for example , Toyota Prius.
According to the types of drives:
Based on electrochemical battery
On the basis of inertial drives
On the basis of pneumatic accumulators, accumulators with pneumatic drive.
On the basis of inertial drives.
As intermediate storage , besides batteries can include batteries of capacitors and electric double layer capacitors ( supercapacitors ) . In the case of a large energy storage capacity of the hybrid car has the ability to move without the inclusion of an internal combustion engine – in ” electric mode » (Chevrolet Volt). If the charge storage can be made not only of the main engine , but also from the electrical outlet , talking about the ” plug-in hybrids ” (English Plug-in Hybrid).
The main advantage of a hybrid car – reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions , achieved full automation of engine control systems using on-board computer – from timely switching off the engine while stopped in traffic , with the possibility of immediate resumption of movement without running exclusively on stored in the accumulator energy , and ending with more complex mechanism of recovery – the use of the kinetic energy of a moving car during braking to recharge the drive from the motor to the power generator mode . As in the case with an electromechanical transmission, an internal combustion engine usually operates at optimum conditions .
Reasons for beginning development
The main reason for the start of production of passenger hybrids became the market demand for such cars, caused by high oil prices and the constant tightening of sustainability requirements for cars. Thanks to advances in technology and tax incentives to producers or purchasers of hybrids cars are sometimes even cheaper than usual . In some countries, owners of hybrids and other benefits are provided – in particular , exemption from road tax , the right to use a dedicated bandwidth on the highway  and free parking , etc.
Hybrid cars have become such deficiencies compromise electric vehicles as a significant mass of the batteries and the need for time to charge , inadequate infrastructure and lack of charging stations driving range .
History of Innovation
The first car with hybrid drive is considered Lohner-Porsche, designer Ferdinand Porsche designed in 1900 – 1901 years.
In the United States began to develop hybrid cars Victor Wouk in the 60s – 70s .
In 1980, Volvo has been experimenting with the flywheel is accelerated diesel engine and used for the recovery of braking energy . Subsequently, the project was abandoned in favor of hydraulic accumulators .
In the USSR
In the Soviet Union work on the development of hybrid cars were made , in particular, under the leadership of Nurbeya Gulia . On he created a prototype based on truck UAZ- 450 , which was a flywheel energy storage and transmission – belt CVT, achieved fuel savings of about 45 %.
In Kursk in 1972-73 NV Gulia were tested buses with hybrid flywheel units and variators . Also been built and tested hybrid powertrains for buses based on the hydraulic drive , in which the role of energy storage performed cylinders with compressed nitrogen gas and oil. Despite the different principles of action of these “hybrids” of their effectiveness was close to each other – fuel consumption is reduced by about half, and exhaust emissions – several times.  However, these techniques have not been claimed the Soviet automobile industry. 
The main motive for the development of hybrid cars was the desire to improve their efficiency, as much as possible without sacrificing the rest of the performance – speed , throttle response , mileage on one refueling , etc. The savings were achieved , including :
Internal combustion engine using less power and, accordingly, the volume ;
operation of the engine in the optimal mode ;
its full stop instead of idling
using regenerative braking to charge the battery (which incidentally reduces brake pad wear ) .
Continuous monitoring of the operation of all systems, a hybrid car on their optimal conditions is a very complex task, which was not possible before the advent of on-board computers .
E-mobility is planned to establish environmental standards Euro-5 .
Ecological purity of hybrid cars is due , on the one hand, a decrease in consumption of hydrocarbon fuel ; further enhances its blackout internal combustion engine when the vehicle is stopped – particularly in traffic . On the other hand, the use of batteries smaller than in electric capacity – and thus the sizes , – alleviating the problem of disposing of the used batteries.
Improved handling characteristics
Engines for conventional vehicles are selected on the basis of peak loads , resulting in their full power is used relatively rarely, and is excessive for a large part of the time of their operation. In hybrid cars this is not necessary – when the tensile load is increased to the energy generated by the internal combustion engine power added to the energy stored in the batteries – so they set a smaller motor , which in this work in the most favorable mode for yourself . Such a redistribution of power in some models of hybrid cars osushestvlyaetsya directly into electrical transmission , and in others – in the transmission direct drive torque (” hybrid- joint drive “).
Increase in driving range
Exception half races at gas stations, and even more of these races, in city driving , the car owner releases in some time .
Save and reuse energy
Eliminated one of the major flaws in the carbon fuel engine – the inability to return energy back into hydrocarbon fuels. Transport engineers have long sought to keep the energy of motion during braking to its reuse . For example, using special design with a large flywheel . But only electrical and hydraulic power can not save with minimal losses and cheap enough . As storage batteries used in accumulators and ultracapacitors .
Do EVs until there is one big drawback – the need to charge the battery. The process is long and requires a specially equipped charging points . Thus, it becomes unusable for long-term and longer trips . But already developed technologies to charge the lithium-ion batteries with electrodes made of nanomaterials to 80% capacity for 5-15 minutes .
A hybrid car , this drawback is eliminated . Refilling is carried out according to the usual pattern typically a hydrocarbon fuel, if necessary, and further movement may continue immediately .
In urban exploitation Hybrid Vehicles 80 % of the time running in electric mode . In February 2006, motorists in the U.S. were able to crack the electronic control system of Toyota Prius and learned to forcibly switch the car in electric mode . French company PSA Peugeot Citroen in 2010 to begin mass production of hybrid versions of Peugeot 307 and Citroen C4. In a mode of electric cars at speeds less than 50 km / h The driver can optionally include electric mode .
Hybrid cars have relatively more weight they are more complex and more expensive than conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines. Rechargeable batteries have a small temperature range, are subject to self-discharge . Moreover , they are expensive to repair. U.S. experience says that mechanics are taken to repair hybrid cars with great reluctance. U.S. is trying to solve the problem of the high cost of tax benefits.
Porsche has abandoned attempts to self-production hybrid vehicle . Mitsubishi is not initially tried to create a hybrid car , and concentrated all its efforts on the development of electric vehicles .
The most successful to date (2008) Continuous development – Hybrid Synergy Drive of Toyota. [ Source not specified 329 days ]
lack of transmission
The most promising , mechanical , hybrids can not at this stage to compete with electric hybrids. The main problem is the inability to create adaptive transmission that can operate in a wide range of gear ratios (over 20) .
Although to a lesser extent than electric cars , hybrid cars are subject to the problem of the disposal of batteries . Effect of emitted accumulators on the environment , apparently nobody investigated . Some hybrid cars batteries are not provided (for example, e -mobile ) .
High efficiency determines the low waste heat generation incidental . In conventional cars in the winter , this heat is used to heat the passenger compartment . In hybrid cars engine does not stall until it heats the interior to the desired temperature , which naturally increases fuel consumption . In the U.S. Toyota Prius models are also used electric heating elements , which are powered by a high-voltage battery . They not only provide warmth without excessive engine operation , but also allow interior heat immediately after a cold start the car, so you always keep the average temperature in the cabin.
Danger to pedestrians
According to research by the American Institute for the assessment of damages on the roads (born Highway Loss Data Institute), hybrids represent an increased risk to pedestrians compared with conventional vehicles because of its quietness when driving on electricity . In particular, hybrid cars assaults on pedestrians occur 20% more often, and the degree of damage above. . To prevent this, hybrid cars can be equipped with an audio signal generator , when driving at low speeds, warning pedestrians approaching cars . These generators are equipped with a 2010 hybrid Toyota Prius, but the legal requirement of a sound generator in hybrid and electric cars currently exist only in Japan. In late 2011, the U.S. President had instructed the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the three-year period to develop a similar legislative initiatives .
Car cost , appearance and arrangement of the cabin
Hybrid Vehicles nothing looks no different from their ” petrol ” brethren. Production of different types , ranging from conventional urban cars to SUVs and sports models . A kind of filling only adds a special pride to the owner. While the price remains at almost the same level. Display showing the operation of the system and the direction of energy flow , some owners have already dubbed the term ” Tamagotchi for the big boys .” Yet the manufacturers do not recommend the use of SUVs in complex geo-climatic conditions.
Hybrids with the ability to connect to the mains
This car , also called English. plug-in hybrid electric vehicle , or PHEV, include outlet not necessarily – but the owner has such an option. As a result, the driver gets all the benefits of an electric vehicle without its biggest drawbacks – limits on mileage per charge. Machine can be used as an electric most of the way , and as soon as the charge falls below a certain level, included a small gasoline or diesel engine and your car goes on as a serial hybrid powering and charging Theda drives, after charging the engine shuts off and the cycle repeats . Charging will take place mostly at night , in the hours when electricity is cheaper.
An example of a PHEV is, for example , model Chevrolet Volt, General Motors produced concern since 2010.
Toyota leads in the number of hybrids and actively produces these cars since 1997 , and in both versions of conventional cars series Prius, parquet series SUV Lexus RX400h, and the luxury car class – Lexus LS 600h.
Lexus LS 600h
By the end of 2006 worldwide has sold over half a million only model Prius. Hybrid drive technology Toyota HSD licensed Ford (Escape Hybrid), Nissan (Altima Hybrid).
Mass production of hybrid cars is constrained deficit nickel-metal hydride batteries .
In 2006 , Japan had sold 90,410 hybrid vehicles, up 47.6 % more than in 2005.