Electric – vehicle driven by one or more electric motors powered by an autonomous power source ( battery , fuel cell , etc. ) instead of a combustion engine. Should be distinguished from electric vehicles with an internal combustion engine and electric transmission , as well as trams and trolleybuses .
The term refers to an electric vehicle , which drive drive wheels for use electric energy obtained by chemical current source .
– OA Stavrov
Also, it can be said that an electric – trackless vehicle is autonomous with a chemical source of energy ( current)
La Jamais Contente, 1899
Electric appeared before the internal combustion engine. First electric car as a carriage with an electric motor was established in 1841.
In 1899 in St. Petersburg, Russian nobleman and engineer and inventor Hippolyte created the first Russian Romanov electric omnibus 17 passengers. Its overall design was borrowed from the British cabs where the coachman was on the high trestle behind the passengers. The crew was a double and four-wheel , front-wheel diameter was larger than the posterior . On the first electric car used lead battery system Bari , who had 36 cans ( voltaic pile ) . He demanded recharge every 60 miles (~ 64 km ) . The total capacity of the car was 4 horsepower. Development crew was borrowed from models of the American firm ” Morris Salom “, which produced cars from 1898. Electric speed changed in nine gradations from 1.6 to 37.4 km / h.
Romanov also developed a scheme of urban routes for these ancestors of modern trolleybuses and received permission to work . However, finding the right investment could not, so it’s not received development .
La Jamais Contente electric April 29 or May 1, 1899 set a speed record on land. He was the first in the world overcome the speed of 100 km / h and reached a speed of 105,882 km / h Famous American designer Walter Baker received electric speed of 130 km / h And the electric company ” Borland Electric” drove from Chicago to Milwaukee (167 miles ) on a single charge . The next day ( after charge ) electric returned to Chicago on their own. Average speed was 55 km / h
The first half of the XX century
Initially, power reserve and the speed of the electric and gasoline crews were similar . The main disadvantage was a complex system of electric charge. Since then there has not improved converters AC-DC , is charged with an extremely complex process . Used to recharge the electric motor powered by an AC . It rotates the generator shaft , which were connected battery electric . In 1906, was invented by a relatively simple operation rectifier, but it essentially does not solve the problem of recharging .
In the first quarter of the XX century, widespread and electric cars with a steam engine . In 1900, about half of cars in the USA was on the steam motion in the 1910s in New York, worked in a taxi to 70,000 electric vehicles. A large spread in the beginning of the century and received electric trucks and electric omnibuses ( electric buses ) .
Brockhaus and Efron FA IA electric describes as follows:
” The most promising type of car in the future can be considered electric, but while he yet sufficiently advanced . Electric motors do not give no noise, no smoke , they are undeniably comfortable and totally all the others, but should maintain its AA power source : battery , which is still too heavy and fragile. Therefore it is impossible to carry with them the energy stored in a long way , and again to charge the batteries and replace exhausted other possible only when driving in cities or one specially constructed station to another . There are already lighter batteries Edison , but they are still not widely used , as is probably still not improved its inventor. A. Electric were put into circulation Jeantaud and many others from the beginning of motoring : the competition in Paris in 1904 were even apparently paradoxical A. Jeanty and Krizhera : a gasoline -electric acting badly. In it a gasoline engine drives the dynamo , which gave current for the electric motor ; it turned out that such electric transmission consumes 20 percent less energy than ordinary mechanical and convenient for speed regulation . “
The second half of the XX century
Resurgence of interest in electric vehicles occurred in the 1960s due to environmental concerns vehicles, and in the 1970s and due to the soaring cost of fuel as a result of the energy crises .
However, since 1982 interest in electric slept again . This was caused by an abrupt change in the situation on the oil market and weak operational performance of experimental batches because of the shortcomings of chemical energy sources.
In the early ’90s , California was one of the most polluted regions in the USA . Therefore, the California Air Resources Committee (CARB) was decided – in 1998 2% of cars sold in California should not produce emissions , and by 2003 – 10%. General Motors Company responded one of the first since 1996, the beginning of serial production of the EV1 electric drive. Some automakers have also begun sales of electric cars in California. The bulk of users EV1 became Hollywood bohemian people . Total in 1997 in California was sold about 5,500 electric vehicles from different manufacturers.
Then zero-emission requirement was replaced by the requirement of low emission. Almost all electric cars produced in 2002 were seized and destroyed by the users (only left some owners Toyota electric RAV- 4). The reason given was called the end of battery life . [ Source not specified 593 days ] GM EV1 tenants refused to offer to buy electric cars. GM also hid from them the intent to destroy confiscated EV1. More about this story is told in a popular science 2006 film “Who Killed the Electric Car ? ” (English Who killed electric car?).
In recent years, due to the continuous rise in oil prices electric again became popular . The report CBS News «Could The Electric Car Save Us?» ( English) reported that in 2007 , the deployment of new industrial electric vehicles. In connection with this trend, the director of the film ” Who Killed the Electric Car ?» Chris Paine plans to release a sequel titled ” Who saved the Electric Car? “.
By order of the mayor of Moscow in 2007 in the city started trial operation of electric vehicles. Was purchased 8 light trucks and 2 buses . According to the results of trial operation technique Department of Transportation and Communications of the Moscow government would submit a draft regulatory document in Moscow for your electric mobility for intercity freight and passenger traffic .
March 30, 2007 for the first time in the Russian electric , converted Igor Korhova of a conventional car , got an opinion on the admission to participate in traffic and was registered in the traffic police with the help of scientist and public figure Yuri Jurevicha Shulipa .
In 2009, St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University have designed the first Russian solar electric system (EMS ) . During the night it can be charged from a conventional wall outlet , and in the afternoon it is powered by solar panels located on the hood . SAM speed – 40 km / h and the range on a single charge the battery – 60 kilometers. 3 kW motor .
22-23 May 2010 in a converted electric Daihatsu Mira EV, the creation of the Japanese club EVs drove 1003.184 kilometers on a single battery charge .
August 24th, 2010 electric «Venturi Jamais Contente» with lithium-ion batteries , on a salt lake in Utah, set a speed record 495 km / h at a distance of 1 km . During the race the car a top speed of 515 km / h
October 27, 2010 electric «lekker Mobil» converted from mikrovena Audi A2 made a record run on a single charge from Munich to Berlin 605 km long in a real traffic on public roads , thus were retained and acted all auxiliary systems, including heating . Electric motor with 55 kW was created by «lekker Energie» lithium- polymer battery «Kolibri» company «DBM Energy». The battery was stocked 115 kWh , which allowed to drive an electric vehicle fly the route with an average speed of 90 km / h (maximum in some areas of the route was 130 km / h) after the finish and keep 18 % of the initial charge . According to the firm DBM Energy, electroloader with battery could continuously for 32 hours , which is 4 times higher than with a conventional battery. Representative of the firm «lekker Energie» claims that the battery «Kolibri» is able to provide total resource mileage to 500 000 km .
November 29, 2010 winner of the European Car of the Year for the first time declared the electric model Nissan Leaf, received 257 points.
In October 2011, Russia began selling the first electric car – Mitsubishi i-MiEV. During the first three months was sold 41 electric . U.S. Department of Energy i-MiEV named most fuel-efficient car Mitsubishi i-MiEV was “Environmental quality mark ” All-Russian Public Ecological Organization “Green Patrol” .
In June 2013 with a small interval electric racing ZEOD RC Japanese company Nissan and B12/69EV British company Drayson Racing Technologies were established another world record speed of electric vehicles – 300 km / h and 330 km / h, respectively .
Comparison with other vehicles
Electric cars have low transport costs. Ford Ranger consumes 0.25 kWh per kilometer , Toyota RAV4 EV – 0,19 kWh per kilometer. Average annual mileage car in the U.S. is 19200 km ( ie 52 km per day) . With the cost of electricity in the U.S. from 5 to 20 cents per kWh cost of annual mileage Ford Ranger ranges from $ 240 to $ 1,050 , RAV- 4 – from $ 180 to $ 970.
In Russia, the cost of electricity – about 12 cents ( 3.8 rubles ) per kWh on the day rate and about 3 cents (0.95 rubles ) per kWh at night .  Thus, the consumption of electric vehicles in Russia be somewhat lower than in the United States because it is charged is likely to be at night.
Traction motor efficiency is 88-95 %.
It is believed that low noise electric can create problems – pedestrians crossing a road , often guided by the sound of a car . Of course , a sharp noise a powerful electric motor working hard with something confused noise of electric trolley (mainly air compressors and fans in the older models ) , mechanical transmission ( differential and driveline ) , electric cars , subway trains are widely known , so that an electric car need noise reduction for normal transport . And the noise of the modern car at low speeds is very small, basically, it’s the noise of friction wheels on the asphalt , gravel or other cover . However, the use of small motors , such as trams , the noise really is virtually absent and some electric cars produced artificially increase the level of noise at speeds up to 30 km / h
Comparison with cars equipped with ICE
It is worth considering that the internal combustion engine can be fed not only carbonaceous fuel, but hydrogen.
No harmful emissions at the location of the vehicle.
Higher due to lack of environmental need for fuel oil, antifreeze , motor oil and filters for these liquids .
Easy maintenance Long service mileage , low cost and TS .
Low fire and explosion hazards in the accident.
Simplicity of design (simplicity of the motor and transmission , no need for a gear change due to the high torque TED adaptability to changes in the external load , stable low speed of the motor shaft , the possibility of its reversal ) and management, high reliability and durability of the vehicle- (up to 20-25 years ) compared to the conventional vehicle .
ICE is a source of dynamic loads and torsional vibrations in the drive train of a vehicle and source of vibrations transmitted bearing structure of the car, on the electric TED dynamically balanced.
The possibility of charging from a household mains ( outlet ), but this method is 5-10 times longer than from a special high-voltage charger.
Electric car – the only option for use of cars for cheap (compared to oil or hydrogen fuel ) energy produced by nuclear power plants, hydroelectric , etc.
Massive use of electric cars would be able to help solve the problem of “energy peak” by recharging at night.
TED have an efficiency of up to 90-95 % compared with 22-42 % in DIC .
Less noise due to fewer movable parts and mechanical gears .
High smoothness with a wide range of frequency change of the motor shaft .
Rechargeable batteries during regenerative braking .
Braking capability by motor mode ( electromagnetic brake ) without the use of mechanical brakes – the absence of friction and, consequently, brake wear .
A simple possibility of implementing a complete drive and braking by applying the scheme ” wheel motor “, which allows, inter alia , it is easy to implement the system of rotation of all four wheels , up to a position perpendicular to the electric body .
battery electric vehicle
Batteries for a half -century of evolution have not reached the energy density and cost comparable to combustible fuel but even this is enough to almost compete with cars on gasoline. In November 2005, A123 System announced a new high-capacity battery bystrozaryazhayuschiysya based on research licensed from MIT. The first batch of items was released in the 1st quarter of 2006 and was used to supply power tools and DeWalt starters engines . The idea of a new battery is to enhance the lithium ion exchange between the electrodes. Using nanoparticles failed to develop exchange surface electrodes and a more intense ion flux . To exclude too much heat and possible explosion of the electrodes , the authors develop in cathodes used instead of lithium / lithium cobalt oxide / iron phosphate . New batteries are not only large storage capacity , but also the speed of charging. To fully charge them, requires only 30 minutes.
The problem is the production and disposal of batteries , which often contain toxic components (eg , lead or lithium) and acid.
Some of the energy is spent on battery cooling or heating the vehicle interior , as well as other meals onboard energy consumers (eg , light or air compressor ) . But it hardly can be called a significant disadvantage.
For mass use of electric vehicles requires the creation of appropriate infrastructure for recharging the batteries (” avtozaryadnye ” station). However , once the gas station and also did not exist.
When the mass of electric charge from a household increases network overload electrical networks “last mile” , which is fraught with power quality and reduction in the risk of local failures network.
A long time to charge batteries compared to refueling. However , in contrast to the gas station, the location of charging stations do not have such strict limitations and can be placed in more convenient locations, such as in parking lots near supermarkets , and may be more common than gas stations .
Low mileage of most electric vehicles on a single charge. Lithium battery capacity of 24 kWh allows electric vehicle drive about 160 km . Use of air conditioning , interior heater , electric loading passengers or cargo movement with frequent acceleration / deceleration rate higher than 90-100 km / h to reduce the mileage of 80 km . However, “most” does not mean “everything.” Electric sedan Tesla Model S has a battery capacity of 85 kWh which allows him to overcome 480 kilometers at a speed of 90 km / h , which is comparable with the most mileage gasoline vehicles .
The high cost of lithium batteries or high weight capacious enough lead batteries .
Dependence of the capacitance of the battery discharge regime . Capacity is approximately inversely proportional to the square root of the discharge current. The transition from the second time of discharge (starter ) to the hour increases the real capacity tenfold , so this drawback is immaterial .
Power produced by all modern power plants , significantly less than the capacity of all modern cars. Generated energy is not enough for simultaneous charging of a very large number of electric vehicles.